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The procedure of shaping does NOT invole

The procedure of shaping does NOT invole ____.negative reinforcementmultiple stages of conditioningconditioned reinforcernatural variability in behavior1 points QUESTION 2A pigeon was put in an experimental chamber and received food at unpredictable intervals. But each time food follows a lighted key. Soon the pigeon start to peck the key with open beak similar to the response toward the food itself. This experiment would support which theory of autoshaping?Autoshaping as the basic process of operant conditioning.Autoshaping as intrusion of instinctive behavior patternsAutoshaping as a type of classical conditioning.Autoshaping as a superstitious behavior.1 points QUESTION 3A free operant procedure differs from a discrete trial procedure in that ___ during a free operant procedure.the experimenter can set any behavior as the targetthe subject can perform the behavior any timethere is no need to use reinforcementthe subject is not confined in an experimental chamber or box1 points QUESTION 4A consistent pause in responding right after each reinforcement occurs with operant conditioning using a ___ schedule.fixed ratiovariable ratiovariable intervalcontinuous reinforcement1 points QUESTION 5In backward-chaining a dog to perform a sequence of 5 behaviors, we start by providing the reinforcer when the dog performs ___.any of the five behaviors in the sequencethe first behavior in the sequencethe whole sequence of behaviorsthe final behavior in the sequence1 points QUESTION 6The initial observations of “instinctive drift” were made ____.early in the acquisition phase of operant conditioningduring the phenomenon of resurgenceduring the extinction processafter successful learning through operant conditioning1 points QUESTION 7According to Thorndike, a cat’s learning in his puzzle box does NOT involve ____.the cat’s knowledgethe cat’s initial exploratory behaviorthe cat’s satisfactiona strengthened S-R connection1 points QUESTION 8In a response chain, the weakest response is usually ____.the last response the individual learnsthe first response the individual learnsthe response at the end of the chainthe response at the beginning of the chain1 points QUESTION 9Humphreys’ paradox refers to the phenomenon that ___.a response that have been intermittently followed by a reinforcer is stronger than a response that has been followed by a reinforcer every timea response that have been intermittently followed by a reinforcer is faster to be conditioned than a response that has been followed by a reinforcer every timea response that has been followed by a reinforcer every time is faster to be conditioned than a response that have been intermittently followed by a reinforcera response that has been followed by a reinforcer every time is stronger than a response that have been intermittently followed by a reinforcer1 points QUESTION 10According to Skinner, what is the discriminative stimulus in the experiment where a cat learns to move a latch and escape from the puzzle box to get food?The foodThe latch that opens the puzzle boxThe puzzle boxThe satisfaction of escaping from the puzzle box1 points QUESTION 11The phenomena of instinctive drift and autoshaping illustrated the importance of ___.geneticsreacquisitionconditioned stimulireinforcers1 points QUESTION 12A pigeon was trained in a chamber to peck a key to obtain food, and then the behavior was extinguished. Then the pigeon was trained in the same chamber to turn around to obtain food and then the second behavior was extinguished. The next time the pigeon was put in the same chamber, it will likely ___ according to the phenomenon of resurgence.turn aroundpeck the keyfreeze upmove around randomly1 points QUESTION 13One of the ways in which operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning is ___.the process of extinction is not possible in operant conditioningthe target response follows the reinforcement in operant conditioning but follows the unconditioned stimulus in classical conditioningthe target response in operant conditioning does not come from an innate stimulus-response associationthe phenomenon of generalization is not observed in operant conditioning1 points QUESTION 14Which of the following is an example of a conditioned reinforcer?feeling of warmth in cold weathera good mealsexual pleasurea high test score1 points QUESTION 15According to Skinner, superstitious behaviors are formed as a result of ____.accidental reinforcementsecond-order conditioningautoshapingconditioned reinforcement1 points QUESTION 16What makes shaping such a useful technique in behavior modification is that it ___.relies on instinctive behaviorscan be used to produce behaviors the learner has never displayed beforeproduces behavior changes that are permanentdoes not require the use of reinforcement1 points QUESTION 17In a percentile schedule of reinforcement, ____.the percentage of responses that receive reinforcement depends on how well the subject performsa higher and higher percentage of responses receive reinforcement as training proceedsa lower and lower percentage of response receive reinforcement as training proceedsa fixed percentage of response receive reinforcement as training proceeds1 points QUESTION 18Dopamine plays a critical role in operant conditioning. Research has suggested that ____ triggers a dopamine burst that enables the neural changes in learning.the execution of the target behaviorthe reinforcement prediction errorthe presence of reinforcementthe presence of the context for the target behavior1 points QUESTION 19When photographing cats escaping their version of the puzzle box, Guthrie and Horton found that ____.most cats never learned to escape the boxa cat’s responses became more consistent over trialsall cats eventually learned to escape the box with exactly the same movementssome cats did not need the food as reinforcement for learning1 points QUESTION 20Typically people check the mailbox once everyday even though meaningful items (such as letters from friends or bills, rather than junk mail) don’t arrive everyday and the arrival is unpredictable. This is similar to responding in a ____ schedule of reinforcement.variable intervalvariable ratiofixed ratiofixed interval1 points

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