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���scientific management���

Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) utilized a ���scientific management��� system that enabled his clients (and those who would soon indirectly apply his methods) to
perform at a more profitable and productive rate. Taylor, who was a self-proclaimed progressive, demonstrated to those who sought out his services exactly ���how to cut

waste and increase productivity���by breaking down work activities���into a sequence of mechanical steps and using stopwatches to measure the time it took each worker to

perform each step in a task.��� Furthermore ���Taylor established detailed performance standards��� such as a monetary incentive ���for each job classification, specifying how

fast people doing each job should work and when they should rest.���According to Taylor such a system needed to be implanted due to man���s natural sluggishness without

incentives, ���Men will not do an extraordinary day���s work for an ordinary day���s pay.��� He also maintained that, with such a system in place, strikes would be eliminated.

A corresponding system, Shi & Tindall (2015) suggests, was needed in ���state and federal agencies to eliminate overlap,��� establish ���clear lines of authority, and the

replacement of political appointees with trained specialists.��� This gave way to the implementation of Taylorist ideals in the confines of the reorientations of cities

as well as ���county governments.��� Whereas the commission system gave ���ultimate authority in a board composed of a small group of commissioners who combined both

legislative and executive powers in heading up city departments��� the city-manager plan ���appointed professional��� administrators to run ���a city or county government in

accordance with policies set by the elected council and mayor.��� However, as with all systems Taylorism, too, had its drawbacks. Local representations of respective

neighborhoods were traded in lieu of ���at-large commissioners;��� blue-collared voters lost their voices in local government; And those who felt it necessary for

government expansion were left in want of a system that did not focus on its costs over services.

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