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Discuss historical/ generational trauma. How does this American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the devel- type of trauma relate to Native Americans and African opment of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Americans? and various court cases.

chapter 1 hw
Answer the following homework questions from page 24.

1., 2., 5., 7., 8., 10.


Answer the essay discussion question #3 from page 25. Include your opinion, I already know what I think. Please pay attention to your spelling and grammar.


chapter 1 : FILE 2
Chapter 1 . Minorities, Diversity, Multiculturalism, Globalization, and the Criminal Justice System 25

Essay Discussion Questions

1. Discuss historical/ generational trauma. How does this American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the devel-
type of trauma relate to Native Americans and African opment of Immigration and Customs Enforcement,
Americans and various court cases.

2. Identify and discuss the ways in which globalization 3. Discuss the various challenges faced by the criminal
has impacted diversity within the United States. Be sure justice system due to the rapid social changes in the
to discuss how macro-level acts and legislation have United States.
added to this social change, such as with the North


Atkins v. Virginia, 536 US. 304 (2002). Collective of Northern Arizona University (Ed.),

Centers for Disease Control. (2005). Asian American Investigating difference: Human and cultural relations in
Populations. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/omh/ criminal justice (pp. 47-57). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Populations/AsianAm/AsianAm.htm. Shusta, M., Levine, D. R., Wong, H. Z., Olson, A.T.,

Coffey, D. (2011). Limits to experimental evaluation and Harris, P. R., (2011). Multicultural law en-forcement:
student attendance in rural indian schools: A field Strategies for peacekeeping in a diverse society (5th ed.).
experiment. Presented at the Population Association of Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

America Annual Meeting. Washington, DC. Stanford University. (2005). Foreign judges gather on

Costanzo, J., Davis, C., Irazi, C., Goodkind, D., & Ramirez, campus to weigh the impact of International Courts.
R. (2001). Evaluating components of international migra- Stanford, CA: Stanford Report. Retrieved from: http://
tion: The residual foreign born. Washington, DC: U. S. news-service.stanford.edu/news/20oS/march30/justs-
Bureau of the Census. 033005.html.

Davy, M., 8: Meyers, D. (2006). United States-Canada- The Associated Press. (2004). Internet Libel case with global
Mexico fact sheet on trade and migration. Washington, implications ends in settlement. Retrieved from: http://
DC: Migration Policy Institute. www. Firstamendmentcenter.org/news.aspx id=14379.

Gelatt, J. (2013). Looking down or looking up: Status and Thomas, D. J. (2011). Professionalism in policing: An intro-
subjective well-being among asian and latino immi- duction. Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning.
grants in the United States. International Migration Thompson v. Oklahoma, 487 U. S. 815, 830, 831, n. 31 (1988).
Review, 47(1), 39-75. Toth, R. C., Crews, G. A., & Burton, C. E. (2008). In the

Gelatt, J., & Coffey, C. (2007). Annual immigration to the margins: Special populations and American justice.
United States: The real numbers. Washington, DC: Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Migration Policy Institute. United States Government Accountability Office. (2005).

Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 US. 306 (2003). Information on criminal aliens incarcerated in Federal

Khashu, A., Busch, R., 8: Latif, Z. (2005). Building strong and State prisons and local jails. Washington, DC: United
policeimmigrant community relations: Lessons from a New States Government Accountability Office. Retrieved
York City project. New York, NY: Vera Institute of Justice. from: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/do5337r.pdf.

Lawrence et al. v. Texas, 539 US. 558 (2003). United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

Leavitt, N. (2003). Legal Globalization: Why US. Courts (2008). Secure communities: A comprehensive plan to
should be able to consider the Decisions of Foreign Courts identify and remove criminal aliens. Washington, DC:
and International law. Petrolia, CA: Counterpunch. US. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Retrieved
Retrieved from: http://www.counterpunch.org/ from: http://www.ice.gov/pi/news/factsheets/secure_
leavitt10252003.html. communitieshtm.

McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky, 545 US. 844 (2005).

Nielson, M. O. (2000). Stolen lands, stolen lives: Native
Americans and criminal justice. In Criminal Justice

2 Chapter 1 . Minorities, Diversity, Multiculturalism, Globalization, and the Criminal Justice System


When writing about multicultural issues in the criminal justice system, it quickly
becomes clear that the topic is broad and multifaceted. The precise reason for this
is that this topic, when handled correctly, is one that splinters into a multitude of
groupings and issues that, from a layperson perspective, are not readily apparent at
the mere mention of the words “minority” and “diversity,” whether from a criminal
justice perspective or otherwise. However, the aim of this text is to demonstrate
that the term “diversity” itself has diverse meanings. This is actually not just a
matter of semantics; rather one should consider that numerous experts in the field
have crafted numerous definitions and perspectives that are all valid yet unique in
many respects.

In this chapter, we will seek to develop definitions for the terms “minority” and
“diversity.” The notion of multiculturalism will be explored from what we believe is a
contemporary perspective; we will discuss both domestic issues internal to the United
States and its multicultural fabric and international issues external to the United States
that are the result of globalization. Indeed, it is important for students to understand
that the diversity within the United States comes from both within and outside the bor-
ders of the nation. This is important because the pushes and pulls that are inherent to
various competing groups come from within and without any country. Indeed, many
of the strains and stresses experienced within the “melting pot” of the United States are
also experienced in countries such as France, Germany, England, Australia, China, and
Russia, to name a few. This is, we believe, an important observation that is not often
showcased in other texts.

Many authors and criminal justice experts attempt to separate diversity stud-
ies within a country from the study of cross-border international issues. We believe
that this separation results in an artificial distinction that is not truly pragmatic for
the practitioner who is confronted with issues that are both local and global in nature,
particularly in densely populated urban areas with complicated demographic features.
This text will rectify this aspect of studying multiculturalism within the criminal justice
process and will also examine numerous vantage points that are not always sufficiently
addressed in other texts. For instance, the issue of hate crimes is often discussed, but
many criminal justice texts that address diversity tend to overlook the fact that, in most
cases, gang offenders (both on the streets and in prison systems) tend to group them-
selves along racial lines. While doing so, they tend to be pitted against one another
along racial lines and, in the process, may hold members of other racial groups as the
enemy of their own affiliation, regardless of whether that person is a member of a rival
gang or not. These types of intricate distinctions in racially motivated crimes are often
not brought to bear by many authors.

We believe that such additional microcosms within these areas of study are
important to the day-to-day criminal justice practitioner, regardless of whether their
involvement is in policing, courtroom sentencing, the operation of prisons, or work in
the juvenile system, and regardless of whether the practitioner falls within the ranks
of security or treatment-oriented professions. Simply put, there are a multiplicity of
perspectives from which one can approach the notion of diversity and from which one
can classify a minority, and although this text is focused on the criminal justice system’s
interface with a multicultural society, this emphasis on crime and criminal justice actu-
ally makes the study of these issues more complicated while also providing with a sense

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