Opposition Argument Analysis
Just like the Argument Summary assignment you just completed, this is designed to help you become more familiar with argument, and with your position in general, by
analyzing the opposing points of your ownargument. Too often, we either dismiss opposing views or divert our argument away from them without fully exploring or
understanding them. As a result, we often focus on one-sided arguments that are overly simplistic or, too often, disingenuous because we don’t fully understand how
complex they are or why people hold positions different from the one we present. This kind of closed thinking is evident as our nation debates many important issues
and in our own lives as well. To help us avoid this thinking error in our own work, this assignment will help us better understand our overall topic by becoming
intimately familiar with the opposing points of view.
The object of this assignment is to summarize the strongest opposing arguments from the conditions of rebuttal in your Toulmin Outline. To do this successfully, you
will summarize the opposing points in specific detail, using unbiased language. Our job in this essay is not to pass judgment on the position, but to come to truly
understand it by informing ourselves. From this, we may see a side to our topic that we have dismissed or that we are unaware of, and we may gain a deeper
understanding of the underlying issues that make these topics so difficult to solve. This summary should follow the same format as the previous assignment, including a
clear introduction of the argument, a body (in which you detail the argument), and a conclusion that summarizes the strongest points. If there are multiple sources of
opposition, please choose the one you feel to be most credible for this assignment.
For examples, please look at the UMN Writing Center at:
http://www.tc.umn.edu/~jewel001/CollegeWriting/WRITEREAD/Summary/samples.htm (Links to an external site.)
One-page, single-spaced analysis of your Toulmin Outline
12-Point Times New Roman Font
Summary/Opposition Rubric (2) (1)
Summary/Opposition Rubric (2) (1)
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeIntroduction, thesis and conclusion
Intro establishes context, the overall point is clear. Clear conclusion
Insufficient context, or the point is slightly unclear or unfocused
Little connection between ideas distracts from the author’s main point
No identifiable point to the essay. The essay is one long summary of the work.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeCritical Thinking
evidence, claims, and conclusions are effectively analyzed and evaluated
demonstrates some synthesis and critical thought, but fails to connect all ideas
critical thinking and analysis are almost completely absent
evidence, claims, and conclusions are ineffectively analyzed and evaluated
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnalysis, language, and logical fallacies
The summary is clear and well supported by specific examples from the text.
The summary is good, but could be clearer or better supported
The summary is unclear and there are very few, if any, specific examples connecting the ideas
The summary is missing or unidentifiable
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeOrganization
The essay is well organized and the flow of ideas is logical and effective.
The essay is mostly well organized and logical but some paragraphs are vague slightly disjointed
Ideas are not logically ordered and the paragraphs are difficult to connect
Ideas are disjointed and disconnected. The paragraphs are not connected in any logical way
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeLanguage, mechanics, and audience awareness
The essay is engaging and has an identifiable voice. The author uses transitions and professional language. No grammar errors
The analysis is mostly engaging, but a few grammar errors or lack of professional tone distract from the flow. Some transitions are used
The summary is difficult to follow and repeated grammar errors distract from the point. Very few transitions are used
The tone is unprofessional, opinionated and overly emotional. There are too many grammar errors to follow the essay and no transitions.
Total Points: 50.0
“History of Aviation the Wright Brothers”
Claim: Wright Brothers started the history of aviation.
Bishop Wright one day brought Wilburn and Orville Wright a small toy helicopter that was made up of wood and two curled rubber bands as a small propeller. Both the
brothers played with it until it broke. After that, they made new copies of toys themselves. They also sold their toys to their friends. So it developed an interest of
flying in them.
Wright Brothers started the printing business in 1889 together but after 3 years they started the business of bicycle. They started selling repaired bikes initially.
They establish their own brand in 1896. By working on bikes Wright Brothers generated an idea of flight.
They used the technology about which they got knowledge from bicycles on airplanes.
That technology included spoke wires, sprockets, chains, and ball bearings. From bicycles they learned to balance and control their aircraft.
Orville and Wilburn Wright performed different experiments to fulfill their dream of inventing an aircraft.
They also learned different techniques to control aircraft such as they realized the need of 3 axes of motions.
Orville and Wilbur got this idea from the flying bird. They saw the birds twisting and curving their wings.
They also performed Kite/glider Experiments.
In 1899 the Wright Brothers began their research on aeronautical research. They used to test their notions of aircraft with a small kite having a five-foot wingspan.
They built a machine in 1900 that carry a pilot in it.
Their 1900 aircraft was not that successful so they flew it as a kite and collected information to improve the functioning of their machine.
Innovators made several assumptions about the development of flight. Since all the animals that fly have wings so innovators though of developing strap on wings. To
test their assumption they would have to jump from the tall building.
Some other innovators built flying machines and took years to build costly prototypes. All of them failed during the testing process.
The modern innovators can learn from the approaches adopted by Wright Brothers.
The Wright Brothers were flawless experimenters.
They adopted simple and low-risk ways to test their assumptions.
Wright Brother flew kites to test their assumptions.
The Innosight advised a big consumer product company to deliver a device to centralized points on campuses.
The business plans were assumed to take 3 months to get approval to sell their devices at school. They could pilot the idea at dew schools. But school slowly processes
that approval because they assumed to approach it differently.
As Wright Brothers started their aeronautical research in 1899, the first aircraft they flew was a kite.
Their first experiment did not produce less lift than expected. They tested small wing model to simulate flight conditions. The wind tunnel they used was a box that
had a fan with mounted wings attached on a particular balance inside a tunnel. By using that device, Wright brothers design the wings of gliders and powerful aircraft
that would carry them into the air for flight. They got the information on satisfactory wing shape. Wright brothers discovered the wing warping through gliders test
that formed an unequal drag alongside the two wings. As a result, they developed a direct linkage between the warping system and the radar.
The design was successful and Wrights were ready to move on the nest step that was powered aircraft.
In 1903, the flyer took off on its own power where Orville was flying. After flying for 12 seconds it covered a distance of 37 meters.
Orville and Wilbur took three more flights on that day.
The fourth flight was the longest one which traveled 260 meters in the duration of 59 seconds.
After their success in North, Caroline Wright brothers continued with their experiments on flying.
Conditions of Rebuttal:
The critics of Wright brothers call their photos the Lost Flights of the Wright Brothers as none of their photo got published ever.
The European aviators criticized Wright Aircraft and call their forward elevator as unstable.
The Wright Aircraft gallop as compare to other aircraft and pilot tried to maintain their attitude. (Wright-brothers.org)
Moreover, some new evidence suggests that a German immigrant flew 2 years before Wright’s Brother took off their flight at Kitty Hawk.
Today a growing number of aviation experts deny the history of Wright Brothers.
The first flight of an n airplane was made by the German immigrants Gustave Whitehead in Connecticut before 2 years. However, its photo is blurry. ( ZENNIE, 2013)
History has revealed that history of aircraft begins with the Wright brothers.
The evidence in the favor of Gustave Whitehead is small in number as compare to those of Wright Brothers.
However, there are a number of photos of Wright Brothers flying while there is none a single photo as an evidence for Gustave Whitehead’s first light. (Crouch, 2013)
ZENNIE, M. (2013, March 14 ). Is history wrong about the Wright Brothers New evidence suggests German immigrant flew TWO YEARS before pioneers took off at Kitty Hawk.
Brunson , A. (2002, Jul 19). HISTORY CHANNEL FILMS WRIGHT FLYER PROJECT. The Herald Journal .
Centennial of Flight. (n.d.). The Wright Way:The Process of Invention. NASA.
Crouch, T. (2013, Mar 18). Air and Space Curator: The Wright Brothers Were Most Definitely the First in Flight. Smithsonian.com.
Wright-brothers.org. (n.d.). The Lost Flights of the Wright’s Brothers. Retrieved Mar 03, 2017, from http://www.wright-
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