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Lecture Introduction Public policy affects all citizens in different way

Week 1: Unit 1 Lecture Introduction Public policy affects all citizens in different ways. For example; a citizen driving too fast is arrested for speeding, or when watching TV the FCC and FTC regulate what appears on TV. Citizens also complain when they have to pay taxes, but little do they realize the federal and local governments are providing such services to protect citizens such as police and fire services. This course is about learning Public Policy, why we study it and the impact of public policy on the daily lives of citizens. To begin Public Policy needs to be defined. The term public policy refers to the actions of government and the intentions that determine those actions. Another formal definition is an intentional course of action followed by a government institution or official for resolving an issue of public concerns. After reading the definition three key words are significant to our understanding of public policy; 1) intentional, 2) actions by the government, and 3) public concerns. First the policy is an intentional action which also includes decisions not to take a certain action. Secondly, the policy is initiated by a government official, but it should e noted they may step outside of the boundaries of the law when changing society. Finally, the primary purpose of public policy is to improve citizen’s quality of life. Classifications of Policy When one studies public policy, as the definition stated, it’s intentional. Therefore, public policy attempts to achieve certain goals which we can put into four classifications based on purpose. The first is security, both from the internal and external threats to the lives, liberties, and properties of its citizens. Common and familiar public policies related to security are national defense and crime policies. This of course is to protect all citizens of society form getting hurt or harmed by others. This classification has taken on much interest since the 9/11 incident. A second classification is membership, that is determining who is and who is not a member of society. Being a member of society offers certain rights and privileges that non-members of society do not enjoy. A member of society is known to have what we call citizenship. Much heated debate among politicians and scholars have been protecting our borders and how to manage illegal immigrants. The third classification is prosperity. The questions facing our governments are the economy. Living in a capitalist society how does government control even distribution, or is there such a policy Lastly, the government helps people to meet needs. Although, the government has some influence, but entirely, it needs to take a lead role in education. During this course students will be challenged to explore these four different classifications by defining, researching, and providing solutions. Although, this may be difficult as with most public policies, the student will engage in the on-going debates society and its citizens have with the true intentions of the government to provide a strong quality life among its citizens. Stages of Public Policy Political scientists and policymaking agencies focus on a process which ideas and proposals are designed prior to going public. The first part of the process is called the “Pre-policy Stages”, which leads into the “Policy Stages”. The “pre-policy stages which provide a basis for policy initiatives are; 1) problem definition, 2) policy demands, and 3) agenda formation. Before a policy issue is defines or adopted, a problem of public concern must be perceived. During this process ethical and ideological perspective are shared, where people will perceive the problem from different angles. During this part of the process different groups will have contrasting opinions and different formulations for the issues. This leads to the next stage, policy demands. From the policy demands are made for government action. What follows is the struggle and power to put these demands on political agendas. Because all legislative and executive bodies are limited with the number of issues on their agendas, people are trying to push their way on to these agendas and move towards policy adoption. The second part of the process for public policies is Policy Stages. The first is policy adoption. This is where policy demands are reviewed and consideration is made as to what policies need to take the form of regulation or law. Once the policy is accepted it moves to the next stage of implementation where citizens look at the outputs. What are the results and performance as a result of implementing this policy are often asked. This where an evaluation is made of the policy’s consequences and then finally finishes with problem redefinition The American government has always been preoccupied with the economy, with its main objective being preserving the property rights of its citizens. However, other economic factors have taken priority such as economic growth, level of unemployment, international competition, and scarcity of natural resources. The one variable that has been constant is that economic activity and government are intertwined; therefore an activity in one area has major consequences in another. This section addresses the quality of life and economic development addresses the concerns for economic policy. Lecture one( attach files below) discusses the four classifications of public policy and the three stages, choose a public policy issue they feel is significant. Many of the issues can be found on the internet and research journal. The following outline below is designed to assist the student when writing this paper. (Paper is 1,000 words, doubled spaced, times roman, 12 font) Outline: State the public policy problem Explain why this policy is significant Identify which public policy classification this specific issues should be assigned Finally, apply the three stages for this public policy

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