The tactical network is, however, very different from generic MANETs. For example, compared with generic
Wi Fi or wireless senses or network radios used in MANETs, tactical radios in military VHF/UHF bands from
30 to 450 MHz often deliver a much lower link rate (e.g., from a few kilobits per second to a few hundred
kilobits per second) and a much longer signal range (e.g., more than 10 km in complex terrains) [1 4]. This
entails distinctive concerns when designing network protocols, as shown later in this work. For example,
compared with generic WiFi radios used in MANETs, tactical radios in military VHF/UHF bands from 30 to
450 MHz often deliver a much lower link rate (e.g., from a few kilobits per second to a few hundred kilobits per
second) and a much longer signal range (e.g., more than 10 km in complex terrains) . This entails distinctive
concerns when designing network protocols, as shown later in this work. In the past two decades, solutions for
MANETs that offer multihop capabilities have been intensely studied and also applied to tactical networks.
However, most of the studies, even including those intended for tactical networks, assume high bandwidth WiFi
radios with a link rate of more than 1 Mbps, for example, 6 12 Mbps, and consequently a short range of only a
few hundred meters in flat terrains .The results are thus not very applicable to the tactical environment, where
radios have different characteristics leading to different network topologies. The effective design of network
protocols requires understanding of both the network topological dynamics and the connectivity attributes
exhibited in typical deployment scenarios. Although comprehensive simulation platforms, models, and tools for
mobile network scenario analysis have been developed, two critical aspects, which are often ignored, require
much attention. First, physical radio link properties determine the topological and performance behavior of the
network and thus cannot simply be assumed and abstracted out in the same way as was done in IP networks. For
example, the topological dynamics and the data delivery performance of a network based on a disc model for
radio signals cannot resemble that of a real network whose link propagation never follows a simple on off disc
behavior. It is thus essential to employ appropriate radio models so that a factual network topology can be
obtained for protocol studies. Second, the deployment parameters applied in the network design and evaluation
should be realistic. For instance, tactical networks rarely follow a random uniformly distributed mobility model,
although such models, for example, the random waypoint model, are most popular in MANET studies. These
studies then cannot validate the solution applicability in tactical scenarios. Therefore, the simplified assumptions
on radio signal range models and node mobility distributions that have been widely used in network protocol
studies may easily fail to engender robust networking schemes for the tactical environment.
The task is to clarify
1 The differences between The tactical network generic MANETs
2 To create some scenario using OPNET simulation to prove that tactical network has to be treated as especial
case of MANETs in terms of
Radio wave propagation model
Heterogeneous power, etc.
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