SURVEY OF WORLD HISTORY Competency 1004.1.8: Multicultural Empires and the New World (through 1500 CE) – The graduate analyzes the spread of peoples, ideas, and technologies into new territories as civilizations advanced beyond their borders of origin. Introduction: After the fall of the Mediterranean and Asian empires in the first centuries of the Common Era, new civilizations emerged and vied to expand their influence throughout Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. To that end, they engaged in trade, territorial expansion, and even armed conflict, all of which led to increased interaction and exchange. In this task, you will explain the role of religion in the origins and development of the Crusades. You will also be required to differentiate the methods used by the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties to expand Islamic civilization. Finally, you will discuss the importance of the Silk Roads in central Asia. Requirements: Note: The suggested page length for this task is 3-5 pages. A. Explain the role of religion in the Crusades by doing the following: 1. Discuss the origins of the Crusades. 2. Describe the methods used by the Roman Catholic Church to promote the Crusades. B. Differentiate the methods used by the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties to expand Islamic civilization by doing the following: 1. Describe the different methods of expansion used by the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. 2. Contrast the religious policies and political administration of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. C. Discuss the significance of the Silk Roads in facilitating one of the following: the sharing of new technology the growth of intercontinental trade the spread of epidemic diseases Note: Your response should include information on how the chosen characteristic affected social, political, and/or cultural development in the selected civilizations. D. Provide acknowledgement of source information, using in-text citations and references, for quoted, paraphrased, or summarized content. 1. Include the following information when providing source references: author date title location of information (e.g., publisher, journal, or website URL) Note: APA citation style is the WGU standard. For tips on using APA style, please refer to the APA Resources web link found under General Information/APA Guidelines in the left-hand panel in Taskstream. Note: No more than a combined total of 30% of a submission can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from outside sources, even if cited correctly. Note: For definitions of terms commonly used in the rubric, see the Rubric Terms web link included in the Evaluation Procedures section
Multicultural Empires and the New World
1004 World History
Western Governor s University
November 18, 2016
Multicultural Empires and the New World (through 1500 CE)
World history is the study of historical studies that started in 1980 in various academic fields. Ideally, world history refers to the study of history from a global perspective. It covers the multiple cultures of various nations across the world. This study uses a thematic approach to carrying out their studies. The world history covers all the events that occurred in 1500 to the present world (Bashford & Levine, 2010). Over the recent past, world history has been used to connect people and events that occurred in some years back. It enlightens the young growing people about the history that our ancestors went through as well as the challenges and benefits realized from the same struggles. Precisely, the world history focuses on determining the human history by carrying out an investigation about the cultural and regional blocs connecting people in the past. The world history has grown so rapid over the recent past by connecting the human similarities as well as improving the integrity of people and places.
The conflict that originally caused the Crusades were centered around loss of the Holy Lands in Jerusalem to the Seljuk Turks. This caused Pope Urban II to take action. As a matter of fact, the basic reason and cause of the crusades was basically centered around Jerusalem and the Holy places in Palestine. The crusades were plain and simply a war between Christians and Muslims. The City of Jerusalem being the birthplace Of Jesus was considered a Holy place of significance to the people of the Christian religion. Christian were allowed safe passage to visit Jerusalem the Holy city. Jerusalem was taken by the Turks originally from the ancient kingdom of Persia, in 1065. Three thousand Christians were violently murdered. The Christians that remained were treated so horribly that Christians from that point forward were aroused to fight in crusades. And to save the Holy land from the Infidel. The Crusades may have begun as a passionate plea by Pope Urban II to free the Holy Land, but the pope also hoped that he might be able to convert Eastern Orthodox Christians to Roman Catholicism, thereby unifying the Christians of the East and the West under his authority (Acrobatiq, 2016).
The issue of crusades did not just happen due to the occurrence of various events in the past. But some factors such as the social, political and religious connotations came together and enabled the spirit of the crusade to grow and spread in all parts of the Europe. The crusades helped in preaching Christianity in all parts of Middle East where many people were labeled as pagans. Jerusalem a city that appeared to be the center of Judaism once fell under the control of pagans, but later the city became a Christianity Center under the leadership of Roman Emperor. After the Roman Emperor, had broken up in the 5th century, the city was under the control of the Eastern Orthodox Church that later was followed by the leadership of Muslims in the 7th century. On the 11th century after the arrival of the Seljuk Turks, the sands were forced to relocate to the central parts of Asia. Later, the Seljuk Turks who were initially referred to nomadic were converted into Muslims (Hassner & Horowitz, 2010). The Seljuk was one of the largest and most powerful clan in Asia that proved to be ungovernable and had an idea of controlling the countries in the Middle East. During this time the crusades started to rise whose main aim was to spread Christianity and reduce the increased and dominance of the Muslims. The people s crusade was started that promised high adventure and enthusiasm to the people to reduce the number of pagans in the city.
After the assassination of Ali who used to be the son-in-law to Mohammed, a group named Umayyad was formed and during the same period they came into power and Mu awiya was chosen as the fifth caliph. During his leadership, the Muslims fought viciously to ensure a stable government and how the religious activities should be conducted. Mu awiya was not moved by the fight and chose from his government Byzantine Empire that also included the Christian administrators in the governance. He further changed the Muslim leadership by choosing his son as the successor instead of letting the decision to be decided by the Muslim elders. Yazid s son who served for the longest time approximating to 20 years managed to transform the Muslim land into a more unified empire (Voll, 2010). On the other hand, Umayyad s have been in Syria and was influenced by the Byzantine and its administration to improve the number of Muslims in the country by ensuring their production. The main aim of the objective of the government was to ensure the Muslims were respected and their equal share to the Christians. Similarly, the Christians too needed protection and their rights needed to uphold and respected.
The Silk Road has enhanced trade as well as the movement of people from one place to another to conduct business. The movement of mixed population within the road has also enabled transmission of ideas and skills from various people moving from one place to another to conduct business. During this period, there the Asian culture has diversified rapidly following the movement of people from one place to another. The diversification of culture has also improved trade within the country and outside the country by promoting and protecting culture. The Silk production in Chinese has significantly improved following the Silk Road constructed in Asia. This aspect has fastened the movement of goods from the production to the market that in return has reduced wastage and losses from the production firms. On the same note, the improvement of business trade has created employment to a large number of people thereby reducing unemployment in the society. Ideally, security greatly improved after the erection of the Silk Road to protect the goods transported from factories to the markets (Kuchins et al., 2010). Moreover, the security has been tightened to ensure people did not lose their properties as they walk from one market to another sell their products. Meeting of different people in the transportation sector and the trading sector has improved the people s skills on how to market their products and improve the economy of the country.
Acrobatiq |. (2016). Acrobatiq.com. Retrieved 18 November 2016, from http://acrobatiq.com/portfolio- item/world-history/
Bashford, A., & Levine, P. (Eds.). (2010). The Oxford handbook of the history of eugenics. Oxford University Press.
Hassner, R. E., & Horowitz, M. C. (2010). Debating the role of religion in war. International Security, 35(1), 201-208.
Kuchins, A. C., Sanderson, T. M., & Gordon, D. A. (2010). Afghanistan: Building the missing link in the modern Silk Road. The Washington Quarterly, 33(2), 33-47.
Voll, J. O. (2010). Islam as a community of discourse and a world-system. The sage handbook of of Islamic Studies, ed. Akbar Ahmed and Tamara Sonn, London: Sage, 2010, pp. 3-16.
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