General:Roots of Contemporary Issues explores the roots of four critical contemporary issues using the
themes of Humans and the Environment, Our Shrinking World, Roots of Inequality, Diverse
Ways of Thinking, and the Roots of Contemporary Conflicts. Your job in this final assignment is
to write an essay that traces the deep historical roots and global significance of a
contemporary issue of your own choice using the historical research that you have already
completed in Parts I-IV of the Library Research Assignment series. Late essays will be
penalized 10% for every 24 hours they are late beyond the deadline.
-Word Count: At least 1900 words (the minimum may be exceeded; citations and the
bibliography are not included in the word count).
-Formatting: Papers should be in 12 pt. font with standard margins (approx. 1″) and doublespaced.
They should include your name (first and last) and a title (no title page).
-File Format: Papers should be saved as .doc or .docx files. Other file types may not be
supported and could result in a late penalty.
-Citations and Bibliography: Proper Chicago style citations (including proper use of italics) in
footnote format are required. The paper is required to have a bibliography formatted in proper
-Style: Do not write in the first (“I” “we”) or second person (“you”); in other words, do not use
“I think” and similar wording. Avoid slang or non-academic language.
LRAs I-IV required you to find seven sources over the course of this term (1 newspaper article,
2 monographs, 2 academic journal articles, 1 primary source, and one scholarly source of your
choice). These should be supplemented by additional primary sources, journal articles, or
historical monographs. While there is no specified minimum number of sources, strong papers
will use at least 8-10. While you may replace some of the sources you found in the Library
Research Assignments, you must include at least 1 primary source along with numerous other
secondary scholarly sources (journal articles and monographs). Do NOT cite items found via a
general Internet search or Wikipedia articles; these are not typically acceptable scholarly
Make sure your introduction clearly introduces your contemporary issue (this can be a “hook”
to grab your readers’ attention and substantiate the relevance of your topic to contemporary
readers), your thesis statement, and your central points/arguments which provide an
organizational structure for your essay. The body of your paper should clearly identify the
historical roots of your contemporary issue through time and across space (including evidence
from at least as far back as the 19th century and at least two different regions of the world).
While your introduction will likely begin with the contemporary issue, historical writing
benefits from chronological organization: going back to the earliest example and moving
forward in time. Or you might find it necessary to employ other organizational forms, such as
geography or sub-topics. Whatever you choose, make sure that your narrative flows in a
logical manner. Remember to provide a conclusion that brings all the various parts of your
essay together by addressing the question of how an understanding of the past is important to
understand your issue in the present.
Review Your Paper For:
-A strong, concise thesis statement that clearly identifies your argument and the scope of your
-A global (or multi-regional) perspective with some evidence reaching as far back as the 19th
-Evidence and analysis that connects back to your thesis statement.
-Strong use of acceptable primary and secondary sources.
-Strong organization with each section of the paper having a clear and distinct purpose (each
section supports one element of the thesis).
-Good narrative flow with few, if any, instances of grammatical errors or awkward wording
(reading the paper out loud can often help in identifying these problems).
Upload your essay as either a .doc or .docx file. For best results, use Firefox as your web
browser when working in Blackboard. Other browsers are not supported and you may have
trouble attaching files or submitting assignments.
After you’ve attached, uploaded, and submitted your essay, log out of Blackboard, log back
in, and return to the dropbox to make sure that you have a submission. Your instructor will
not track you down for failure to properly submit your essay!
This is my paper outline, you can work it out if you can make it better.
All my sources are at the end of this paper and use as many as you can from that list.
Essay Title: Romania and Hungary: Race conflict and Transylvania dispute
Research Question: How did the events from 1916-1945 between Romanian and Hungary lead to territorial conflicts over Transylvania, and racial issues in that region, that are still presents to this day.
Thesis: The bilateral relations between Romania and Hungary in the World War I and World War II timeframe, with the annex of Transylvania in 1918 and opposite sides during the wars, represents the roots of regional racial and social conflicts that are visible even in 21st century society. Furthermore, fascism movements and political incompetence have ignited and moreover encouraged the ethnical conflict between these two countries.
1. Word War I (1914-1918) has opened the first modern war conflict of Romania and Hungary.
A. Romania remains neutral for the first years of the War and decides in 1916 to join against Austro-Hungarian Empire.
i. Transylvania territory dispute is imminent and Romania is preparing for the fight.
ii. Political documents show how Romania is determined to gain Transylvania and plans to join Allied powers creating a repression against Hungarians.
B. Romania joins war against Austro-Hungary Empire and racial conflicts starts.
i. After Romanian join in war, the political views and war itself encouraged people to ethnical conflict.
ii. Romanians are determinate to win the war and gain Transylvania from the Empire. More racial disrespect grown on both sides.
2. Interwar period and Transylvania Annex.
A. Romania gains Transylvania when Austro-Hungary Empire dissolves.
i. Although Europe has change to more “peaceful borders” the racial conflict grows in silence.
ii. With the annexation of Transylvania more Romanians are coming in the region inevitable creating more language barriers between people.
3. Fascist movements, Arrow Cross in Hungary and Archangel Michael in Romania “arise the anti-Semitism in the Danube Basin”.
A. Arrow Cross ideology in Hungary (1935-1945) encourages anti-Semitism towards Romania as an excuse for Transylvania loss.
B. Archangel Michael movement with national-fascist ideology has exercised their anti-Semitic power to oppress the Hungarian Nationalist bringing hate into Romanian people hearts.
Conclusion: The annexation of Transylvania by Romania would have been proceeding quite differently if political powers at the time would have encouraged the coexistence of both Romanians and Hungarians in the territory. Although the fascism movements have gain influence, their racial approach has intensified the ethnical conflict instead of inspiring social toleration against foreign inhabitants.
 Quoted in Wesley J., “Self-Determination and the Difficulty of Creating Nation-States: The Transylvania Case” Geographical Review Vol. 99, No. 2 (2009), 231.
 Quoted in Nicholas M. Nagy-Talavera, The Green Shirts and the others: a history of Fascism in Hungary and Romania (Romania: Iasi, 2001), 268.
Nagy-Talavera, The Green Shirts and the others, 120-150.
Nagy-Talavera, The Green Shirts and the others, 95-115.
This is my list the sources I gathered, use as many as you can in the paper.
1. Andres E. B. Blomqvist, Constantin Trencsnyi and Balzs Iordachi, Nationalisms across the Globe:Hungary and Romania Beyond National Narratives: Comparisons and Entaglements (Oxfors: BGR PeterLang Ag, 2013), 1
2. Lorman, Tom. “Missed Opportunities Hungarian Policy Towards Romania, 1932-1936.” The Slavonicand East European Review Vol. 83, No. 2 (2005): 290
3. Nicholas M. Nagy-Talavera, The Green Shirts and the others: a history of Fascism in Hungary andRomania (Romania: Iasi, 2001), 3.
4. Reisser, Wesley J., “Self-Determination and the Difficulty of Creating Nation-States: The TransylvaniaCase” Geographical Review Vol. 99, No. 2 (2009): 231
5. Wireless to THE NEW YORK TIMES. “HUNGRY’S ATTACKS SURPRISE RUMANIA: IncreasingTension Between the Two Countries Noted– Mayor of Village Slain DIPLOMATIC MOVES SEENBudapest Foreign Minister in a Statement Hits Effort to Create Anti-Reich Feeling Envoy Reports toCarol Hits Anti-Reich Propaganda.” New York Times, July 20, 1939. Accessed Mach 11, 2016http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2182/hnpnewyorktimes/docview/103046977/7185BCB960BB4580PQ/7 accountid=14902
6. Wireless to THE NEW YORK TIMES. “HUNGRY IS WARY OF RUMANIAN WAR: ChangedAttitude Is Laid to Italian Pressure Plus a Promise to Aid Later BULGARIANS REMAIN CALM AxisInfluence Held Aimed at Balkan Peace Till British Campaign Is Completed Grave Issue Seen DevelopingSofia Continues Peace Drive Names Minister to Moscow Balkans and Axis Trade Parley.” New YorkTimes, July 29, 1940. Accessed Mach, 11, 2016http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2182/hnpnewyorktimes/docview/103046977/7185BCB960BB4580PQ/7 accountid=14902
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