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How to write a review paper

How to write a review paper: the definition of journalistic style

It is commonly known that journalistic style is widely used in political literature, periodicals (newspapers, magazines), in political speeches, in meetings, etc. The main function of language in this case is to make an impact – and this function is closely intertwined with the informative one. The role of journalism, especially newspapers, is to convince the reader and influence his or her will and feelings in order to create public opinion; in addition, the content of journalistic works serves the transmission of messages and explanations as well as commenting on the events. Primarily, journalistic style underlines the author’s position, and represents manifestations of the author’s bias. Journalism is an art of argumentation, persuasion, and therefore the originality and brightness of expression should be used to enhance the effectiveness of a language usage.

Journalistic literature highlights a variety of topical issues of interest to society: ideological, political, economic, philosophic, ethical, educational as well as ones related to culture, art, production and everyday life experiences. The socio-educational function of journalism gives rise to its linguistic and stylistic features. The defining feature is the combination of actions and information. To implement a purely informational function of the same type of journalists frequently used regularly reproducible locales (clichés), which help both authors who can promptly convey news and readers who can quickly and correctly perceive the information. The implementation of the impact function requires expressive and figurative linguistic resources. Journalistic style (in particular, in a newspaper) organically combines the power of expression and the convenience of standard: a story should be told in an open, emotional language. The duality of the impact function creates opposite qualities, which lead to inconsistencies in the style of a linguistic system. If, for example, we say that an official or business style is conservative and stable, the journalistic one on its background looks conservative and highly mobile.

The chief characteristics of journalistic style are as follows:

  • The genre variety of publications makes a great influence on the choice of language and means of organizing the text. Many informational genres (articles, reports, interviews), as well as analytical (correspondences, articles, reviews, letters) artistic and journalistic ones (essays, reflections, sketches, skits, lampoons) cannot do the same simply by means of speech and written message.
  • Journalistic style implies an estimation, a passion, or emotionality of a special kind. The acuteness of statements, the polemical nature of expressions and a direct evaluative openness – these features are inherent not only in journalistic genres, but it is here where they are trailblazing, and without them there can be no journalistic works whatsoever.
  • Journalistic style is not a closed system, but rather an open and mobile one.
  • The combination of logical and emotional, subjective and objective relationships gives rise to the problem of word and image, and the problem of the stylistic appearance of different journalistic genres.

How to write a review paper: the elements of a great article

In journalism, the main accent is placed on the author’s style of speech (the author’s position, which should be active, open and provide clear and definite estimations). The latter has a variety of stylistic, aesthetic and communicative functions. Direct and double indirect speech contrast and interact simultaneously with an author’s style of speech. This interaction (including methods and techniques of combination) forms the appearance of a speech genre: an interview, for example, is based on direct speech, whereas a sketch contains it in full agreement with a characterological function (it flashes the character as if from the inside), and, ultimately, active double indirect discourse is brought to the satirical sound in a feuilleton. The impact of the function of speech in works written in journalistic style defines a multitude of stylistic features: motive, expressiveness, originality expression, evaluative function, polemical, etc. The information function of speech in such works determines the chief features of a plan, which should be consistent, formal, accurate and standardized.

Speaking of syntax as a whole it is characterized, on the one hand, by the traditional journalistic (elevated and pathetic) structure (syntactic parallelism, periods, repetitions), and on the other – by “uninhibited” and close to the conversational structures (dissected, incomplete, featuring a fragmental design). Such complexity of the system of syntax style is dictated by the genre variety of publications, the difference in their specific targets, content and functional units. There are many things that affect the syntactic structure – from the overall tone of the multidimensionality of propagandistic style to the tone of an invocatory confidential conversation. In journalism, there exist well represented figurative means (trails or figures), writers also use set phrases, proverbs, sayings, which are often transformed, reinterpreted in the right way for a journalist. Various methods of contamination, collisions of meaning, collocation updates and familiar locution formulas have a genre and compositional conditionality and make an expressive, active impact on the reader. All this is due to the overall expressive orientation of the style. Finally, expressive means serve to create social and political sharpness, actuality – and these are not only the means of visibility, but also of social evaluation of depicted things and values.


How to write a review paper: interesting nuances of belles-lettres

The question of whether belles-lettres appertains to the functional style, is still a matter of controversy. Some researchers put the style of fiction in a number of functional styles, while others consider it a phenomenon of a more complex order. It is thought that the reason for the dispute is a combination of the concepts of artistic style and the so-called language of fiction. The specifics of the language of fiction are revealed especially profoundly when comparing it with the concept of “literary language”. Thus, the language of fiction is based on a common literary language, but uses it to create a system of verbal artistic expression, as in the language of fiction lies the unity of the communicative and aesthetic functions. Literary language is, first and foremost, a standardized language with its inherent linguistic resource system; secondly, literary language is a very complex and extensive concept, since it permits the use of various extraliterary elements of popular language. The verbosity and complexity of the language of fiction imply that simple fact that many lexical, phraseological, grammatical and stylistic elements can be used within it as a mixture of different functional styles that are aimed towards the aesthetic function of language. The language of fiction is a synthesis of carefully selected creative means of expression. The best works of art differ in their expediency, content is the aesthetic elements of motivation used with various functional styles and their conversion in respect to specific artistic and aesthetic problems. In a literary text, archaic and extra-literary facts of language become special features as well as vernacular locations and dialecticisms. Also, in different genres of fiction principles of expression selection and ways of their construction are subordinated to the objectives of the speech of constructing images of characters from different social environment, which are sometimes very far from the carrier of literary language.

The aesthetic field of communication, as well as the aesthetic function of language expresses the functional quality of the language of fiction. The originality of artistic style depends on many parameters, such as the following ones: the unity of incomplete data volumes: something that is given by a writer and perceived by the reader; special linguistic intuition and creative work as factors that determine the degree of artistic valence of speech; the nature of a writer’s creative thinking (a work of art is a purposeful dynamic system of images). The list can be continued by adding other parameters, namely: the relationship between ideological and aesthetic content and the linguistic form of art; the degree of concentration and the system of the interdependence of figurative means that define how to write a review paper on a work of art. The accrued sense in the context of a work of art and its contextual counterpoint (external and internal, shared and private contexts, the context of historical, social, psychological, emotional, stylistic changes) completes the said features even more. Finally, we can add three more things: 1) the figurative and semantic specification of linguistic means; 2) the special nature of the accuracy of verbal expressions, permitting semantic shifts, innuendo, etc.; 3) the special nature of the correctness of speech, which admits ideological and aesthetically motivated deviations from linguistic norms.

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