Literature Review. I attached all the sources with annotated biography. Paper will be on hurdles that teachers/students face in education regarding stereotypes and
Your synthesis essay, or literature review, should be 2000-2500 words, not including your ���references��� pages at the end of the review. In other words, the text of the
paper should be 2000-2500 words.
In addition your synthesis essay should include at least 10 scholarly sources in the ���references��� section.
Anderson, K. (2010). Students’ stereotypes of professors: an exploration of the double violations
of ethnicity and gender. Social Psychology Of Education, 13(4), 459.
This source explores how students perceive professors in terms of gender and ethnicity. From the source, it can be deducted that in many cases, students tend to judge
women professors depending on how they teach their syllabus. For instance, the source asserts that students find female professors to be warmer than their male
counterparts. However, students also deem female professors to be so predictable when it comes to the content they teach. The article utilizes ���gender consistent��� and
���gender inconsistent��� disciplines in their researches such as pre-composition and pre-calculus. It was ascertained that women and Latinas are underrepresented in in
science. Additionally, the source also examines students��� reaction to professors privy to their stereotypes. The article confirms that students are more comfortable
with professors that identify with group. The article utilizes two significant parameters in analyzing its hypothesis. These include professor���s warmth and professor���s
competence. Regarding professor���s competence, it was concluded that women tend to be warm than competent, which means that male professors are considered competent in
Dietrich, J., Viljaranta, J., Moeller, J., & Kracke, B. (2017). Situational expectancies and task
values: Associations with students’ effort. Learning And Instruction, 4753-64.
According to Dietrich, Viljaranta, Moeller, & Kracke (2016), task values and expectations play a significant role for students investing effort into learning. However,
the authors indicate that knowledge regarding the shifting positions of values and expectancies remaiin scanty from one learning situation to another. Additionally,
the article alludes the fact that it is difficult to ascertain the extent inter-individual findings reflect intra-individual motivational processes. The article
confirms the shift of intra-individual flactuatios as been motivated by changing learning contents, changing task types and the type of interaction taking place in the
lecture in a given situation. The article avails significant information regarding the strength and weakness of the study carried out. For instance, it is indicated
that the current sample utilized comprised of students and teachers attending a university lecture. The research confirms that with such a setting, class attendance is
not mandatory, which means that some students dropped out of the test prior to its conclusion. A single item of measure was employed although the research availed an
avenue for utilization of different types of measures.
Friedrich, A., Flunger, B., Nagengast, B., Jonkmann, K., & Trautwein, U. (2015). Pygmalion
effects in the classroom: Teacher expectancy effects on students’ math achievement.
Contemporary Educational Psychology, 411-12. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.10.006
The article ���Pygmalion effects in the classroom: Teacher expectancy effects on students��� math achievement��� explores the theory advanced by Pygmalion effect whereby it
is mentioned that when a teacher has high expectancy, it impacts student performance positively. However, the article cites the need for further research on the topic
since it has been narrowed to only a student���s performance. Instead, this article has adopted a novel method of research on the topic as it examines the Pygmalion
effect in a longitudinal manner whereby it explores a teacher���s expectations in relation to the overall classroom performance and how each student performs on a
subject, which in this context is mathematics. The article sums up that Pygmalion effect is evident at both subject and student level. Besides, it is summed up that
students��� self-concept played a critical role in mediating the teacher���s expectancy. Lastly, the article indicates that teacher���s expectancy does not play a
significant role at the classroom level especially when prior students��� performance is controlled.
The article���s significance in my literature review stems from the premise that it introduces a new criterion in the topic of research considering that it
adopts a longitudinal research pattern, which deviates from the traditional teacher expectancy and how it impacts a student���s performance.
Gates, J. (2010). Children With Gifts and Talents: Looking Beyond Traditional Labels. Roeper
Review, 32(3), 200-206.
The article ���Children with Gifts and Talents: Looking Beyond Traditional Labels��� commences by touching on the significant issue of misusing labels by teachers. The
article touches on different theories that address matters regarding how labels play a critical role in students��� development. Notably, it is mentioned that students
should be positively labeled for them to have confidence and perform as expected. However, a critical issue is touched on in the article, which regards perception of
self and perception by others. The article cites the fact that in as much as some students are gifted, they do not consider other people including their teachers,
siblings, peers and parents regard them. This issue results from the fact that some teachers consider gifted students as annoying in class since they have the
potential to ask hard questions in classroom. The article cautions against labeling since students that do not receive the gifted designation might experience a drop
in self-esteem as they might end up considering themselves as weird.
The significance of this article for my literature review stems from the premise that it addresses how labeling plays a critical role in students��� performance.
For instance, it mentions the fact that gifted students do not usually perform as expected as they also have doubts regarding if their perception is genuine or a move
to make them special.
Gosse, D. (2011). Race, Sexual Orientation, Culture and Male Teacher Role Models: “Will Any
Teacher Do as Long as They Are Good ”. Journal Of Men’s Studies, 19(2), 116-137.
Race, Sexual Orientation, Culture and Male Teacher role Models: ���Will any Teacher do as Long as they are good ��� is an article that introduces a new line of research in
the topic of study. Notably, the article focuses on the role of gender and how students��� relate to various types of teachers. It also explores culture and the role of
male teachers in acting as role models to students. The article draws several conclusions such as there is need for schools especially in Canada and the USA to employ
a teacher from a certain race that the students in that institution can relate with. This stems from the premise that it inspires students some more because it avails
them a voice and role model. The article also employs queer theory in explaining how the teacher���s role in inspiring students. For instance, it is cited that any able
teacher irrespective of their sexual orientation has the capability of teaching and impacting student���s positively.
This is article is significant for my literature review since it avails diverseness of information on the role of teachers and how they impact students.
Notably, it explores the issue of sexual orientation and race and how they play a critical role in determining whether students will stay in school or drop out.
Grieshaber, S. (2008). Interrupting stereotypes: Teaching and the education of young children.
Early Education And Development, 19(3), 505-518. doi:10.1080/10409280802068670
���Interrupting Stereotypes: Teaching and the Education of Young Children��� is an article that explores the role of education in early care and education. Notably, the
article cites the fact that much attention has not been accorded to ECE as a focal point. The article asserts that much focus has been placed on the notion of quality,
importance of parent���s inclusion in the education process and children development. That is why the article advances the need for further research centering on child
development and education. Thus, it is mentioned that there is a need for teachers to focus on teaching while at the same time the students��� are developing. This stems
from the need on teacher���s to focus on children���s skills as they play and learn. The article also mentions the need for focused interactive teaching since it
facilitates students to gain significant dispositions and skills such as social, numeracy, literacy, corporation and independence.
This article is significant for my literature review since it introduces the role of teachers in teaching and how it impacts children in ECE. Notably, the
article alludes the need for teachers to focus on children skills as they play rather than just set up an educational facility where they keep children to play and
grow instead of learning and growing at the same time.
Meltzer, A. L., & McNulty, J. K. (2011). Contrast Effects of Stereotypes: “Nurturing” Male
Professors Are Evaluated More Positively than “Nurturing” Female Professors. Journal
Of Men’s Studies, 19(1), 57-64.
The article ���Contrast Effects of Stereotypes: Nurturing Male Professors are Evaluated more positively than Nurturing Female Professors��� also introduces a new
perspective to the research topic. This stems from the fact that the article cites female professors are rated highly on as nurturing than their male counterparts.
However, in some instances, when a male professor exhibits some characteristics that seem more nurturing than the female professors, they are inversely rated higher
than their female counterparts. This is what the article terms as expectancy-inconsistent perceptions. This more particularly advised by stereotypes that a certain
gender is associated with. A critical point in the article is the fact that people evaluate men more negatively in comparison with how they evaluate women. However,
other research on this topic has refuted the claim considering that men are equally evaluated positively in some professions such as parenting and healthcare.
This is article is critical to the research topic because it introduces the expectancy-inconsistent theory, which advances that men are evaluated negatively in
many professions, which is not overall at the same time because if a man exhibits characteristics that seem more nurturing, they are evaluated positively more than
their female counterparts in the same field or profession.
Norah E., D., & Chris, S. (2012). Clothing and Teacher Credibility: An Application of
Expectancy Violations Theory. ISRN Education, doi:10.5402/2012/140517
Dunbar & Segrin (2012) assert that clothing is a significant part of non-verbal communication and cite the need for teachers to strive for a moderately formal
clothing. This stems from the effects derived from what teachers wear and how they act towards students. For instance, Dunbar & Segrin (2012) assert that when a
teacher is dressed in a cloth that does not reflect his or her status, it tends to violate students negatively. However, when a teacher dresses appropriately as deemed
by students, he or she impacts them positively. Another critical issue examined by this article concerns teachers��� clothing and how they treat students. When a teacher
is not appropriately dressed but tends to be more rewardig towards students, the focus is shifted from their mode of dressing to their way of teaching. On the other
hand, students��� expectation is shifted to the teacher���s mode of dressing even though they are well clothed in situations where a teacher tends to be angry and less
Sorhagen, N. S. (2013). Early teacher expectations disproportionately affect poor children’s high
school performance. Journal Of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 465-477.
The article ���Early Teacher Expectations Disproportionately Affect Poor Children���s High School Performance��� focuses on the impacts that early teacher���s expectations
plays on high school students. Particularly, the article cites the fact that teacher expectations are influenced by family income on a student. It is concluded in the
article that teacher expectations has a significant impact on students from low income families than how it has on students from affluent families. The article also
touches on self-fulfilling prophesies and cites the fact that it varies across academic subjects and family income. The article also confirms that teacher���s
underestimation of poor children���s academic abilities abounds as one contributor regarding the difference in performance between students from different socioeconomic
This article is significant for my literature review since it avails information concerning how teaching assumptions affect learning. Particularly, the article
touches on how teachers��� expectations play a significant role in influencing self-fulfilling prophesies. It mentions that teacher���s expectations have more influence on
students from low income families.
You Are What You Wear: An Interactive Demonstration of the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy.
(2004). Teaching of Psychology, 31(4), 260-262.
The article regarding ���You are what You Wear: An Interactive Demonstration of the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy��� has been well researched and presented by the
authors. This stems from the fact that there is empirical application of evidence in their study as they manage to ascertain the fact that what a person wears plays a
critical role in defining who they are. For instance, the application of the five people who wore hats with different labels clearly depicts what clothing reveals
about a person. It is true that people tend to treat others depending on how they present themselves especially in how they dress. Another significant point where the
authors scored is the application of men talking to women that are either ugly or beautiful. It is common knowledge that women who consider themselves as beautiful
usually have a good demeanor to complement their beauty whereas those that have esteem issues usually do not communicate well with men.
This article will be significant for my literature review considering the fact that it avails critical information regarding how assumptions play a significant
role in class teaching and student comprehension. For instance, from the fact that it has been proven that what a person wears plays a critical role in defining them,
a teacher can end up forming assumptions regarding a certain student, which may not be the exact impression regarding the student.
Weinstein, R. S., Gregory, A., & Strambler, M. J. (2004). Intractable Self-Fulfilling Prophecies:
Fifty Years After Brown v. Board of Education. American Psychologist, 59(6), 511-520.
���Intractable Self-Fulfilling Prophesies��� introduces a new whole area of information regarding how different expectancies shape students��� performance. The article
mainly explores how much the educational system has changed since Brown v. Board of Education case, which took place more than 50 years ago. It is cited that in as
much as the educational system advances its dedication for allowing each member of the society equal access to all education, this is not entirely the picture, which
is depicted by the education system. Notably, disparities are evident as explained under the expectancy effects and how they result in educational inequalities. It is
mentioned that two main disparities reign and these include the equal access to an educational system that meets a student���s needs versus common curriculum. The
article advances that these disparities result in educational inequalities.
This article is significant to the topic of research because it adopts a new way of looking at the research topic. Notably, various types of expectancies exist
and not only teacher���s expectancies plus all these expectancies
Weinstein, R. S., Marshall, H. H., Sharp, L., & Botkin, M. (1987). Pygmalion and the Student:
Age and Classroom Differences in Children’s Awareness of Teacher Expectations. Child
Development, (4). 1079.
The article ���Pygmalion and the Student: Age and Classroom Differences in Children���s Awareness of Teacher Expectations��� is a well-researched article that presents a
clear understanding of how age and classroom differences plays a significant role on students��� comprehension of teacher���s expectations. The article opines that
children between the age of 7 and 8 years have a low comprehension rate of teacher expectations. However, their perceptions start to change as they advance in age and
they start to avail a more vivid description of people around them touching on significant factors such as trait. The article also mentions the significance that
differential treatment by teachers plays. It asserts that differential treatment can impact students both positively and negatively, while it denies some students
enough time for practice, it impacts on others positively through giving them cues on expected behavior.
This article is significant in my literature review since it touches on differential treatment, which is a critical factor in understanding the influences that
a teacher had on student���s comprehension and performance. Besides, the article also touches on how age is a significant factor when it comes to student���s performance
and comprehension; thus, it will be significant for my literature review.
WRTG 391 Writing Assignment #3 Synthesis Essay (sometimes called a Literature Review)
Writing Assignment #3 will be a synthesis essay, a format that is sometimes referred to as a literature review. Please click here for a video that briefly describes
and outlines this writing assignment. Organization:
Your synthesis essay should be organized in the following manner: ���Introduction: Write one or two paragraphs in which you introduce the reader to your topic. ���Body-the
categories into which you are dividing the literature: Divide your sources into a few categories. A suggestion is that you divide them into three to five categories.
���Conclusion: Summarize what the literature says on your topic. Approach: This semester, you have constructed a table of research findings of four articles that
discussed research studies. You have also critically evaluated several articles in the annotated bibliography. In this assignment you will synthesize the ideas of
several authors in a synthesis essay, or literature review. For your annotated bibliography, you selected a topic based on your interests and, possibly, your major.
You constructed a list of 12 references and summarized and critically analyzed them in 150-200 words each. Through this process, you may have seen patterns in the
scholarly literature in the topic on which you conducted research. For example, consider the following examples: ���You may have researched studies in criminal justice
and found that there are varying opinions on how to respond to criminal behavior among youth. ���You may have researched studies in psychology and found that counseling
strategies for victims of domestic abuse tend to fall into four categories. ���You may have researched graphic communications and discovered that the integration of
graphics in business report writing has evolved from the 1970s to the present because of advancements in technology. ���You may have researched articles on gerontology
and found studies that answered three basic questions on how older adults respond to training for physical performance.
In the synthesis essay, you will focus your research efforts in a particular area, perhaps as a response to what you found while writing the annotated bibliography.
You will then conduct more research and synthesize your findings in this synthesis essay. Please note that the annotated bibliography was the beginning, not the end,
of your research. You might decide to disregard several of the articles you analyzed in the critical annotated bibliography because they don���t speak to the specific
area on which you have decided to write your synthesis essay. You might select one article that
you analyzed in the critical annotated bibliography, look up the articles cited in that article, and ���snowball��� your research in that way. In other words, this process
is a recursive one. You might find reasons to hone in on and narrow your topic even further after you have written the annotated bibliography.
How to organize the synthesis essay: When you have focused on your topic, determine how you will divide the literature. In other words, consider the following examples
we described above: You may have researched studies in criminal justice and found that there are varying opinions on how to respond to criminal behavior among youth.
You might divide the paper as follows: Introduction Body ���Category 1: ���A��� view on responding to criminal behavior. ���Category 2: ���B��� view on responding to criminal
behavior. ���Category 3: ���C��� view on responding to criminal behavior. ���Category 4: ���D��� view on responding to criminal behavior. Conclusion
You may have researched studies in psychology and found that counseling strategies for victims of domestic abuse tend to fall into four categories. You might divide
the paper as follows: Introduction Body ���Category 1: ���A��� counseling strategy for victims of child abuse ���Category 2: ���B��� counseling strategy for victims of child abuse
���Category 3: ���C��� counseling strategy for victims of child abuse ���Category 4: ���D��� counseling strategy for victims of child abuse Conclusion
You may have researched graphic communications and discovered that the integration of graphics in business report writing has evolved from the 1970s to the present
because of advancements in technology. You might divide the paper as follows: Introduction
���Category 1: graphics in business report writing in the 1970s ���Category 2: graphics in business report writing in the 1980s ���Category 3: graphics in business report
writing in the 1990s ���Category 4: graphics in business report writing from 2000 to the present Conclusion
You may have researched articles on gerontology and found studies that answered three basic questions on how older adults respond to training for physical performance.
You might divide the paper as follows: Introduction Body ���Question 1 ���Question 2 ���Question 3 Conclusion
In order for you to see this concept with a real-life example, you can access a sample synthesis or literature review from a psychology student by clicking here. The
student writes her paper on the following topic: Emotional Eating: The Perpetual Cycle of Mood-Food Influence. She divides her literature into the following
categories: ���Influence of Mood on Eating Behavior ���Gender Differences ���Influence of Eating Behavior on Later Moods ���Chronic Stress Response Network Notice how she
synthesizes and integrates the research into the different categories.
Approach and Requirements Your synthesis essay, or literature review, should be 2000-2500 words, not including your ���references��� pages at the end of the review. In
other words, the text of the paper should be 2000-2500 words. In addition your synthesis essay should include at least 10 scholarly sources in the ���references���
section. As stated above, this means that you may decide not to use all 12 sources that you summarized in your annotated bibliography. You are free to use all 12 of
them. However, it is possible that your experience in writing summaries of the 12 sources led you to conclude that a few of them will not be as helpful to your topic
as you had originally thought. You may decide not to include such sources in the synthesis essay. This is totally up to
you. Moreover, you might find other sources that you would like to include in your synthesis essay that were not included in your annotated bibliography. You may use
such sources in your synthesis essay as well.
Some helpful tutorials and guides from UMUC���s Effective Writing Center: ��� Click herefor a tutorial that features two short videos on writing a literature review. ���
Click here for a tutorial on principles in synthesizing multiple sources. In synthesizing your research, you are analyzing the topic on which you have conducted
research. Click here for a helpful tutorial on analyzing a topic.
Some helpful guides from other universities: ��� Some very systematic advice from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill can be accessed by clicking here. ���
Some helpful advice from the University of Wisconsin-Madison can be accessed by clicking here.
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