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Topic: C195 Cultural Variation


Dwairy, M., & Achoui, M. (2006). Introduction to three cross-regional research studies on parenting styles, individuation, and mental health in Arab societies. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37 (3), 221-229.
Sorkhabi, N. (2012). Parent socialization effects in different cultures: Significance of directive parenting. Psychological Reports, 110, (3), 854-878.

MULTIPLE CHOICE (1 point possible)

According to Dwairy and Achoui (2006) …

A. In individualist cultures, parents are authoritative and give freedom to their children to achieve the goals of self-reliance, independence, and leadership B. In collectivist cultures, parents are authoritarian in order to achieve the goals of conformity, cooperation, obedience to authority C. Both individualist and collectivist values coexist within all groups D. Both answers A and B.

According to Sorkhabi (2012), the characterization of cultures as individualist and collectivist:

A. Provides a complete description of normative values and goals maintained by parents within a group B. Homogenizes parenting values within a group C. Helps us understand variation in parenting values within groups D. Both answers A and C

According to Dwairy and Achoui (2006) …

Parenting goals (e.g., independence) have the same meaning in individualist and collectivist cultures The same parenting style (e.g., authoritarian) has the same effect in individualist and collectivist cultures A given practice (e.g., physical punishment) or parenting style (e.g., authoritarian) can be harmful to children in one culture but beneficial in another, because of consistency or inconsistency between the practice and the cultural value system Cultural value systems do not affect the link between parenting and child outcomes

According to Sorkhabi (2012) …

Studies that show different effects of the same parenting style in individualist and collectivist cultures have sound measures of parenting styles that have good construct validity and reliability Studies that show different effects of the same parenting style in individualist and collectivist cultures have sound methods of data collection where data for dependent variables (e.g., academic achievement) are obtained from objective sources not subjective self-report Studies by Dwairy and others (e.g., Chao) provide them the empirical basis to make practice recommendations to professionals working with children and families to advise against the use of authoritative parenting styles and practices by parents in Eastern, collectivist cultures Researchers who emphasize cultural differences in parenting and child outcomes (Dwairy; Chao), conclude that even if authoritarian parenting is related to negative mental health outcomes in children said to belong to collectivist cultures, such effects are minor and not as significant in collective cultures as academic achievement

The proposition that adolescents’ positive interpretation of authoritarian parenting in collectivist cultures mediates the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on developmental outcomes…

A. Is supported by empirical studies B. Is contradicted by a limited number of empirical studies that show that children and adolescents negatively evaluate authoritarian parenting C. Does not erase the unique developmental effects of maladaptive forms of parenting (authoritarian, permissive) D. Ansewrs B and C

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