100% Original, Plagiarism Free, Tailored to your instructions

Order Now!

The greatest invention ever: periodic table

A must-have review on the periodic table

These days, it’s hard to find a person, who has never heard about the periodic table or PT for short – the cornerstone of up-to-date chemistry. In this review we’ll tell about it a bit more than you might have expected.

We can define the periodic table as a tabular display of various chemical elements, specially organized in accordance with their atomic numbers, recurring chemical properties, and electronic configurations. Chemical elements are organized in order of growing atomic number, which is the number of protons. The standard form of the periodic table includes an 18 × 7 grid of elements, placed above a smaller double row of chemical elements.

One can deconstruct the periodic table into four rectangular blocks:

  • The p-block to the right
  • The s-block to the left
  • The f-block below
  • The d-block in the middle

We call the rows periods. As for the columns of the d-,s- and p-blocks, they’re dubbed groups. Some of these groups even boast their own names, such noble gases or halogens.

The periodic table helps to explore obvious relationships between the properties of the chemical elements and even predict the properties of the new ones. With this table, one can easily analyze chemical behavior, so the periodic table is a must-have tool in chemistry.

All the versions of the periodic table include only chemical elements, so you won’t find compounds, mixtures or subatomic particles there. Every chemical element boasts a unique atomic number, which stands for the number of protons in the nucleus of this element. The vast majority of chemical elements feature different numbers of neutrons in different atoms and these variations are normally referred to isotopes. By the way, isotopes aren’t separated in the PT, they’re grouped together under a particular element. As for elements without stables isotopes, they feature the atomic masses of their steadiest isotopes.

In the periodic table, the chemical elements are organized in order of increasing their atomic number. A new row dubbed period begins when a new electron shell acquires its first electron. As for columns also dubbed groups, they’re determined by the atom’s electron configuration. Those elements, which share the same number of electrons in a certain subshell, find themselves in the same columns.

The chemical elements, having similar properties normally fall into the same group of the periodic table. So, it’s quite easy to foresee the chemical properties of a particular element if you know the properties of the chemical elements around it.


A vertical column in the periodic table is a group. Up-to-date quantum mechanical theories of atomic structure explain group trends by suggesting that the chemical elements in the same group should share the same electron configuration in the valence shell. This normally results in a shared trend in chemical properties with growing atomic number.

According to the international naming convention, the groups are numbered from one to eighteen in columns from left to right. The chemical elements belonging to the same group, are prone to demonstrating quite definite patterns in electronegativity, ionization energy and atomic radius.


When talking about a period in the PT, we mean exactly a horizontal row there. Though groups mostly have more considerable periodic trends, there’re certain regions where horizontal trends appear to be more crucial than vertical group trends, including the f-block, where actinides and lanthanides from two important horizontal series of chemical elements.

Atomic radius tends to decrease, when moving left to right across a period. This can be explained by the fact that every successive chemical element boasts an electron and proton. As a result, the electron gets drawn close to that atom’s nucleus. The given tumble in atomic radius also causes the ionization energy to surge, when moving from left to right in the period. Apparently, the more tightly bound the chemical element is, the more energy should be applied to remove an electron. Then, electronegativity grows in the same manner as ionization energy. It’s caused by the pull applied to the electrons by the nucleus.

The electron configuration

The electron configuration is a crucial part of the periodic table. As we know, electrons are used to occupying corresponding electron shells. Every shell involves one or several subshells. Let’s call them p,s,d, g and f. As atomic number grows, electrons occupy these shells as well as subshells in accordance with the energy ordering rule or Madelung rule.

The history of the periodic table

Antoine Lavoisier in 1789 published a list of up to 33 chemical elements, where they were organized into groups of metals, gases, earths and nonmetals.

In the next century, scientists kept looking for more advanced classification scheme for the chemical elements. In 1829, Johan Wolfgang Dobereiner discovered that a great number of chemical elements could be successfully organized into triads, depending on their chemical properties.

In 1857, Jean-Baptiste Dumas issued a work, where he described relationships between groups of metals.

In 1858, August Kekule, a German chemist found out that carbon often boasted four other atoms firmly bonded to it. The given conception later became known as valency.

In 1862, a French geologist Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois published an early form of the periodic table dubbed the telluric helix. Frankly speaking, he appeared to be the first person who noticed the periodicity of the chemical elements. He arranged the chemical elements on a cylinder in a spiral by order of growing their atomic weight. Moreover, he added some compounds and ions.

In 1864, a German chemist, Julius Lothar Meyer created a table, including up to 44 chemical elements, organized in accordance with valency. The table stated that the chemical elements with similar properties had the same valency.

Mendeleev’s table

We’ve finally come up to the most well-known version of the periodic table – Mendeleev’s table. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev, a well-known Russian chemist published the first periodic table, where the chemical elements were listed in columns and rows according to their atomic weight.

By the way, the significance of atomic numbers to the organization of the periodic table wasn’t appreciated by the world of science until the very essence of neutrons and protons became clear.

Instead of atomic number, Mendeleev’s periodic table made use of atomic weight to group the chemical elements. Indeed, atomic weight sufficed in most cases, helping to predict the chemical properties of missing elements, while other methods weren’t effective enough in this regard. That substitution of atomic numbers gave a long-awaited definite sequence for the chemical elements.

In 1871, Mendeleev issued an updated form of its periodic table with new detailed predictions for the chemical elements.

Further development

As for the most common layout of the legendary periodic table, here we should be grateful to Horace Groves Deming, an American chemist. In 1923, he managed to create a medium and short forms of the periodic table.

With the development of up-to-date quantum mechanical theories of electron configurations in atoms, it became clear that every period of the periodic table corresponded to the certain filing of aquantum shell of electrons. In fact, larger atoms featured more electron sub-shells, respectively tables required longer periods.

In 1945, an American chemist, Glenn Seaborg offered a new version of the periodic table with the actinides belonging to the second f-block series. From this point of view, the actinide elements, including the lanthanides occupied an f-sub-level. Previously, the actinides were supposed to form the fourth d-block row. By the way, his colleagues recommended his not to publish this stuff as it could spoil his scientific career. Nevertheless, he dared to publish it and won the Nobel prize in 1951.

End up with a successful writing work!

Are you currently looking for writing help? You’re probably exhausted as you had to deal with low quality dishonest services on the net and they spoilt your first impression of online essay writing. Fortunately, you’ve got a real chance to change your attitude to such services for the better. Just opt for our best resume writing service and you’ll see with your own eyes what makes the difference in this case. Of course, our team is already familiar with a case study method, so we can offer the best college essays, courseworks, not to mention a research proposal.

Just visit our custom essay-writing website and you’ll see that reliability is our key priority. You simply register and make an order. Leave all your hesitations and worries in the past. Undoubtedly, we respect your tough deadlines and we’ll do our best to meet them at any cost.

One of our greatest achievements and what actually makes us stand out from numerous rivals is money protection. It’s clear that no one is eager to shell out his hard earned cash on academic writing if it fails to meet strict requirements. Indeed, you won’t risk even a penny when dealing with our reputable custom online writing service. So, if we fail to deliver your paper on time, you can fully count on a complete refund.

We agree that university and college essays need to be fully original and there shouldn’t be any signs of plagiarism. You can hardly find an education institution where plagiarism is tolerated. However, you don’t need to think about this nuance, as once we complete your order you obtain a fully original paper. Once the paper is delivered, it will be removed from our base.

Some students don’t feel confident enough to work on their writing assignments on their own. They delegate their tasks to professionals and that’s an undoubtedly wise decision. There’s nothing shameful in your temporary or even permanent inability to write essays, research proposals, business plans and so on. Just entrust your academic headache to us and we’ll find effective ways to cope with it without delay.

Our freelance authors are true wizards of academic writing. They know how to make any paper attractive to any professor. Enhance your academic performance effortlessly.

Don’t expect yourself to be frightened by our prices, as you know for sure that professional authors will never agree to work for low wages. Well, that’s true, but we’ve already come up with a decent compensation. Take advantage of our 7% discounts! These are probably the biggest discounts in this market niche. By the way, as a newbie, you can count on a 20% discount. Are you still hesitating?

If you want to enjoy higher discounts, just keep using our services and you’ll be able to save up to 15%!

Tell your pals about us and you’ll earn points. The more orders your pals make, the more attractive discounts you’ll obtain.

If you require a clarification, nothing prevents you from making the most of our live chat. It won’t take us much time to tackle any issue of yours. There’s no need to guess what this particular option means, as you can always count on a detailed answer. It’s not a problem to reach out to our friendly support team day and night. You’ll be amazed how quickly they can work.

Our Service Charter

  1. Excellent Quality / 100% Plagiarism-Free

    We employ a number of measures to ensure top quality essays. The papers go through a system of quality control prior to delivery. We run plagiarism checks on each paper to ensure that they will be 100% plagiarism-free. So, only clean copies hit customers’ emails. We also never resell the papers completed by our writers. So, once it is checked using a plagiarism checker, the paper will be unique. Speaking of the academic writing standards, we will stick to the assignment brief given by the customer and assign the perfect writer. By saying “the perfect writer” we mean the one having an academic degree in the customer’s study field and positive feedback from other customers.
  2. Free Revisions

    We keep the quality bar of all papers high. But in case you need some extra brilliance to the paper, here’s what to do. First of all, you can choose a top writer. It means that we will assign an expert with a degree in your subject. And secondly, you can rely on our editing services. Our editors will revise your papers, checking whether or not they comply with high standards of academic writing. In addition, editing entails adjusting content if it’s off the topic, adding more sources, refining the language style, and making sure the referencing style is followed.
  3. Confidentiality / 100% No Disclosure

    We make sure that clients’ personal data remains confidential and is not exploited for any purposes beyond those related to our services. We only ask you to provide us with the information that is required to produce the paper according to your writing needs. Please note that the payment info is protected as well. Feel free to refer to the support team for more information about our payment methods. The fact that you used our service is kept secret due to the advanced security standards. So, you can be sure that no one will find out that you got a paper from our writing service.
  4. Money Back Guarantee

    If the writer doesn’t address all the questions on your assignment brief or the delivered paper appears to be off the topic, you can ask for a refund. Or, if it is applicable, you can opt in for free revision within 14-30 days, depending on your paper’s length. The revision or refund request should be sent within 14 days after delivery. The customer gets 100% money-back in case they haven't downloaded the paper. All approved refunds will be returned to the customer’s credit card or Bonus Balance in a form of store credit. Take a note that we will send an extra compensation if the customers goes with a store credit.
  5. 24/7 Customer Support

    We have a support team working 24/7 ready to give your issue concerning the order their immediate attention. If you have any questions about the ordering process, communication with the writer, payment options, feel free to join live chat. Be sure to get a fast response. They can also give you the exact price quote, taking into account the timing, desired academic level of the paper, and the number of pages.

Excellent Quality
Zero Plagiarism
Expert Writers

Instant Quote

Instant Quote
Single spaced
approx 275 words per page
Urgency (Less urgent, less costly):
Total Cost: NaN

Get 10% Off on your 1st order!