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Address the cases of both Carl and Sally from the unit lecture for this assignment. For each case, discuss any
that apply to the cases and choices that Carl or Sally is making in the case scenarios. You may also compare and
contrast the theories and how they affect the choices they are making. Be sure and indicate the choice that Carl
makes at
the car dealership, and the techniques that Sally needs to employ to make different food choices to meet her
Support your points with appropriate theory, research, and references, and cite and reference in APA style.
This should be at least 2 pages formatted using APA style. Use your own words, and include citations for
sources (if needed) as needed to avoid plagiarism.

Carl is looking for a new car. He has researched many choices and now is embarking on his journey to car dealerships to test drive vehicles. He has an idea of the model, make, color preference, and price range of his preferred vehicle for his long term needs. At the first car dealer, he hears about a deal for a vehicle, only for that day, but it is for a car that is not his favorite. He tests drives the car and likes it. With the keys in his hand, the salesman asks him to wait while he asks his manager if he can get an extra special deal for that day, also exempting him from the dealer fees, saving him even more money. Although this is not the vehicle at the top of Carl s list, at the moment, he feels like the deal might be too hard to pass up. The salesman takes Carl into his office and indicates there is another customer currently interested in the vehicle, so Carl needs to make his decision quickly or risk missing this deal.
What are the theories at work in Carl s choice and decision making process at this dealership There are several theories related to behavioral choices that are presented in this unit that you will read about in detail. These include the theory of optimization, momentary maximizing theory, matching law, and self-control choice.
In 1968, Garrett Hardin published a landmark article entitled, “The Tragedy of the Commons” in the prestigious journal Science. The Tragedy of the Commons relates to the theories of choice discussed in this unit, and applies to issues in our everyday life today.
Schwartz (2009) writes, We are now dealing with a tragedy of the global commons. There is one earth, one atmosphere and one water supply, and 6 billion people are sharing it. Badly. The wealthy are overgrazing, and the poor can’t wait to join them. Examples are plentiful: the overharvesting of trees by lumber companies; the overplanting of land by farmers; the overdevelopment of suburban communities; the extraction of petroleum from a common pool by oil companies; and the overcrowding of highways and other public facilities. (p.64).
What is the underlying issue with the tragedy of the commons
There is an important and quite general feature to the commons problem what economist Thomas Schelling called “the tyranny of small decisions.” When deciding whether to add another cow to your herd, you are not choosing to destroy a common resource in order to get a little more milk. Faced with that choice, you might refrain. The choice you see is a little more milk in exchange for a little less grass. Good deal. So, commons problems are marked by conflicts between individual and collective interests and between short-term and long-term interests. It is from this tragic dilemma that we must escape (Schwartz, 2009, p.64). Can you think of a tragedy of the commons in your local area or one mentioned in this article that you have observed globally What theory or theories might explain this concept from our readings in this unit and chapter To conclude this unit, we will consider another case study related to the theories and concepts related to choice. Sally has wanted to lose weight and has struggled with her weight for many years. She recently went to her doctor, who indicated that her blood pressure and cholesterol was high, thus motivating Sally to lose weight even more, as her health is now being affected, in addition to how she looks and feels. Sally knows that one component of her weight issue is her constant snacking and her food choices, which are typically convenient and fast food choices that are high in fat and cholesterol. She also likes and chooses beverages that are high in sugar and calories, as soft drinks are her favorite, and she stocks them in her refrigerators home and work. Sally s food choices have typically relied on convenience ( fast and easy ), rather than nutrition. What theories help to explain Sally s current choices What techniques would you recommend to assist her in making different choices to avoid eating foods high in fat and cholesterol and instead make healthier alternative food choices
As you can see, theory and research related to choice applies to situations that occur in our everyday lives. Perhaps you will consider these aspects when making your next decision

Schwartz, B. (2009). Tyranny for the commons man. The National Interest. 102, p.64. Universal Match Corp, Los Angeles. (1950). Muntz Matchbook [Photograph].Retrieved from Wikimedia.org

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